Using mathematics constrained by the ‘Standard Model’ (the laws of physics as currently understood) it’s not possible to create coherent mathematical solutions which account for the evolution of the universe – from theto the state we know today.
The 'Inflation' theory was developed in the late 1970s in order to overcome the anomalies.
In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10−36 seconds after the conjectured Big Bang singularity to some time between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds after the singularity. Following the inflationary period, the universe continued to expand, but at a slower rate.“
Source : Wikipedia
The theory is now widely accepted - though not by all cosmologists. If, however, Inflation Theory is correct, it assumes by definition conditions which don't fit the Standard Model. In other words the conditions within the Inflation period are unknown.
It it's not the correct explanation, then then some aspects of the Big Bang scenario remain unexplained.
The detailed particle physics mechanism responsible for inflation is unknown. The basic inflationary paradigm is accepted by most physicists, as a number of inflation model predictions have been confirmed by observation; however, a substantial minority of scientists dissent from this position.
Source : Wikipedia
Other possible explanations include alterations in the values of the- gravity, light-speed etc.. Reasons for such alterations are also outside the Standard Model - i.e. unknown.
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