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Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of Unknowns Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of the Unknown

Parkinson's disease

Also known as Parkinson disease, Parkinson's, idiopathic Parkinsonism, primary Parkinsonism, PD, or paralysis agitans - is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system resulting from the death of dopamine-containing cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain.

Despite more than a century of intensive scientific research, the cause of the cell-death is unknown.

It results in severe tremors, muscle rigidity and movement difficulties. It currently affects more than 6 million people worldwide.

It's known that there is a strong genetic component involved with the chances of developing the disease. Though it can also be triggered by exposure to toxic chemicals (herbicides, pesticides, fungicides, drugs etc.). And by brain injuries (in sports etc.).

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Also see :Deep Brain Stimulationplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigDeep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is therapeutic neurosurgical procedure used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and Tourette syndrome

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It was introduced in 1997, and involves direct electrical stimulation (via implanted wires) of various brain regions. Because of the surgical risks, it's usually only used for severely affected patients, when drug treatment is not proving effective.
(treatment), and Essential Tremorplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigEssential Tremor

"Essential tremor (ET, also referred to as benign tremor, familial tremor, or idiopathic tremor) is a progressive neurological disorder that is also the most common movement disorder. The cause of the condition is currently unknown.

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