Neurofibrillary tangles (which are technically described as 'aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein') are commonly known as a primary marker of. Their presence is also found in numerous other diseases - generally known as tauopathies. Little is known about their exact relationship to the different pathologies.
They are currently controversial because it's not known if they are causing disease, or simply a symptom of it.
Neurofibrillary tangles are formed by hyperphosphorylation of a microtubule-associated protein known as tau, causing it to aggregate, or group, in an insoluble form. (These aggregations of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are also referred to as PHF, or “paired helical filaments”). The precise mechanism of tangle formation is not completely understood, and it is still controversial whether tangles are a primary causative factor in disease or play a more peripheral role.
Source : Wikipedia
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