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Bee Colony Collapse Disorder [ CCD ]

Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is the phenomenon that occurs when the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for the remaining immature bees and the queen. While such disappearances have occurred throughout the history of apiculture, and were known by various names (disappearing disease, spring dwindle, May disease, autumn collapse, and fall dwindle disease), the syndrome was renamed colony collapse disorder in late 2006 in conjunction with a drastic rise in the number of disappearances of western honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in North America.European beekeepers observed similar phenomena in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain,Switzerland and Germany, albeit to a lesser degree, and the Northern Ireland Assembly received reports of a decline greater than 50%"

Source ; Wikipedia (link below)

A number of possible causes have been suggested, including

  • Pesticides
  • Pathogens and immunodeficiency problems
  • Fungicides
  • Antibiotics and miticides
  • Climate Change
  • Bee rentals and migratory beekeeping
  • Selective commercial breeding and lost genetic diversity in industrial apiculture
  • Malnutrition
  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Parasitic phorid fly
  • Genetically modified crops

See Wikipedia for details.

There is as yet no solid agreement amongst experts as to which of the theories (or combination of them) give a true picture.

Note: It has been suggested that commercial lobbying groups may have played an active role in discrediting theories related to damage caused by chemical usage - especially Neonicotinoids.

Bee species decline

A 2021 study from the Grupo de Ecolog├şa de la Polinizaci├│n, INIBIOMA, Universidad Nacional del Comahue-CONICET, Argentina, suggests that, alongside CCD, the number of bee species worldwide has been steadily declining since the 1990s. By as much as 25%. The reasons are unclear, but causes would probably include the factors listed above.

Our analysis supports the hypothesis that we are undergoing a global decline in bee diversity that needs the immediate attention of governments and international institutions."

See : One Earth journal, Volume 4, ISSUE 1, P114-123, January 22, 2021

Also see : Insect population declineplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigInsect population decline

Various scientific studies have shown that the global terrestrial* insect population is in sharp decline.

The declines are primarily found in 'developed' nations. Estimates for the rate of decline vary wildly. One review study, which compiled the results of 166 previous surveys, suggested that it could be as high as 9% per decade (

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