User Tools

    To create and edit articles, please register and log-in

Main Menu : categories & index etc.

Main menu
Click categories to expand

A-Z listingplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigA-Z listing

This is an alphabetical index of all content pages.

Other categories



Also see

Importance Ratings
Curator's rationale
AI Policy

Twitter feed š¯•¸

Feeds + s.e.o. etc.
rss / xml feed
sitemap file
A-Z listing (archived)

Indexed under : Life Sciences / Life Itself

Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of Unknowns Wikenigma - an Encyclopedia of the Unknown

'Borg' DNA

'Borgs' are newly discovered (2021) extra-chromosomal elements - in the form of large functional DNA sequences - that are found in the cell nucleus, but outside the chromosomes.

They have been found, in abundance, in some species of the micro-organisms Archaea - in particular, ones which can oxidise and remove methane from the environment. On a global scale, the activities of these organisms are crucial for controlling methane levels (methane being a naturally occurring and powerful 'Greenhouse Gas').

It's speculated that the DNA 'borgs' might be playing an important part in coding for proteins which control the oxidising process.

Borgs are enigmatic extrachromosomal elements that can approach (and likely exceed) 1 Mbp in length We can neither prove that they are archaeal viruses or plasmids or mini-chromosomes, nor can we prove that they are not. Regardless of the name, they are clearly different from anything that has been reported previously. It is fascinating to ponder their possible evolutionary origins. Are they giant linear viruses or plasmids unlike anything previously reported? Alternatively, are they auxiliary chromosomes?

See : Borgs are giant extrachromosomal elements with the potential to augment methane oxidation Bio RXiv, July 2021

Also see : Cellular organellesplugin-autotooltip__plain plugin-autotooltip_bigCellular organelles

Eukaryotic cells are cells which have a nucleus. Within that nucleus are various discrete structures with very specific functions that are, as a group, called 'organelles'.

In the 1970s a book by professor Lynn Margulis (titled Origin of Eukaryoticā€¦

    Please share this page to help promote Wikenigma !

Dear reader : Do you have any suggestions for the site's content?

Ideas for new topics, and suggested additions / corrections for older ones, are always welcome.

If you have skills or interests in a particular field, and have suggestions for Wikenigma, get in touch !

Or, if you'd like to become a regular contributor . . . request a login password. Registered users can edit the entire content of the site, and also create new pages.

( The 'Notes for contributors' section in the main menu has further information and guidelines etc.)

Automatic Translation

You are currently viewing an auto-translated version of Wikenigma

Please be aware that no automatic translation engines are 100% accurate, and so the auto-translated content will very probably feature errors and omissions.

Nevertheless, Wikenigma hopes that the translated content will help to attract a wider global audience.

Show another (random) article

Further resources :